Understanding cross-border trade made easy

Understand expert topics and subject terms and reduce the compliance risk

Expert Contributions and Glossary

Expert contributions and the glossary provide relevant information and definitions for internationally active companies on a variety of topics, such as compliance requirements and technical standards for value-added tax (VAT), Intrastat, Coffee Tax, Invoicing, and much more.

Read VAT Expert Contributions

Read Intrast Expert Contributions

Read Coffee Tax Expert Contributions

Read Invoicing Expert Contributions

Note: The provided texts are for information and education purposes only and do not constitute tax, legal, or any other form of business advice.



Amazon Marketplace

The Amazon Marketplace is an online platform operated by Amazon, where sellers can offer their products and services, while buyers can choose from a wide selection of products and purchase them conveniently from home. The platform provides sellers with an easy way to sell their products and expand their customer base, and buyers with a convenient and reliable way to purchase products online.

However, it is important to note that sellers are responsible for complying with applicable compliance rules and laws, which can regularly present significant challenges when selling internationally. Amazon plays an important role in monitoring and regulating the sales process to ensure a safe and enjoyable shopping experience for customers



Compliance requirements are legal, regulatory, or industry-specific standards that a company must adhere to.

These regulations may concern laws, regulations, rules or standards established by regulatory agencies or industry associations to ensure a safe, fair, and ethical business environment.

Companies must ensure that they meet all compliance requirements to avoid potential legal and financial impacts and to maintain their integrity and credibility.


Jurisdiction Language

Jurisdiction language refers to the language used in court proceedings and legal documents. Each country has its own jurisdiction language, which is usually established in the constitution or other legal documents of the country. However, some countries have multiple jurisdiction languages that are used in different regions or for specific types of court proceedings.

In the European Union, there is no single jurisdiction language. Each EU Member State has its own jurisdiction languages used in its own court system. Some Member States have only one official jurisdiction language, while others have multiple official jurisdiction languages.

Here are the jurisdiction languages in the EU, listed with their respective official languages:

  • Belgium (BE): Dutch (nl-NL), French (fr-BE), German (de-BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG): Bulgarian (bg-BG)
  • Denmark (DK): Danish (da-DK)
  • Germany (DE): German (de-DE)
  • Estonia (EE): Estonian (et-EE)
  • Finland (FI): Finnish (fi-FI), Swedish (sv-FI)
  • France (FR): French (fr-FR)
  • Greece (GR): Greek (el-GR)
  • Ireland (IE): Irish (ga-IE), English (en-IE)
  • Italy (IT): Italian (it-IT)
  • Croatia (HR): Croatian (hr-HR)
  • Latvia (LV): Latvian (lv-LV)
  • Lithuania (LT): Lithuanian (lt-LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU): Luxembourgish (lb-LU), French (fr-LU), German (de-LU)
  • Malta (MT): Maltese (mt-MT), English (en-MT)
  • Netherlands (NL): Dutch (nl-NL)
  • Austria (AT): German (de-AT)
  • Poland (PL): Polish (pl-PL)
  • Portugal (PT): Portuguese (pt-PT)
  • Romania (RO): Romanian (ro-RO)
  • Sweden (SE): Swedish (sv-SE)
  • Slovakia (SK): Slovak (sk-SK)
  • Slovenia (SI): Slovenian (sl-SI)
  • Spain (ES): Spanish (es-ES)
  • Czech Republic (CZ): Czech (cz-CZ)
  • Hungary (HU): Hungarian (hu-HU)

It is important to note that some of these countries also have additional regional languages or minority languages that can be used as jurisdiction languages in certain areas or contexts. A complete list of all jurisdiction languages of all countries would be very long, as there are many countries in the world and each country has its own laws and languages.